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55 minute read
July 6, 2022

Real-Time Decisioning in the Dashboard (Beta)

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Note
This feature is currently in beta and subject to change. It also requires additional activation steps. To learn more about the Beta program for this feature and about activating it for your program, contact your Marqeta representative.

Welcome to the Marqeta Real-Time Decisioning dashboard. Using the dashboard you can manage rules for detecting fraudulent transactions. Users with the required permissions can define, review, test, and activate rules.

Managing risk with Real-Time Decisioning

The following are typical overall setup and ongoing tasks for managing risk using the Real-Time Decisioning dashboard:

Define users and teams

Create users who will perform the Real-Time Decisioning tasks and assign roles as necessary. Roles define what tasks a user can perform. For example, some user roles have permission to make changes to the analytics configuration, others to approve a transaction. You can also create teams, and add users to or from teams. For more, see Users and Teams. For information on roles, see Real-Time Decisioning User Access. For a step-by-step guide, see Tutorial: Managing Users in Real-Time Decisioning.

Define your analytics and approval workflow

Real-Time Decisioning provides a default analytics and approval workflow. You can use Real-Time Decisioning’s built-in analytics and approval workflow, or you can adjust the workflow or build our own for your specific use case.

These changes are made in a staging environment. Users with these permissions can also submit changes for approval, but (by default) cannot approve these changes. A user with the supervisor role must approve the changes and implement them. However, your system can be configured so that users who can make changes to analytics can also review and approve or reject changes, but not changes they have made.

See Analytics and approval workflow for more information about the workflow. See Managing your analytics configuration for more about the staging environment.

Create, edit, and test rules

Real-Time Decisioning provides an editor for writing and editing business rules using ARIC Model Definition Language (AMDL™), which is a dedicated language for fraud detection. It includes an AMDL Generator wizard that provides a simple way to create new business rules, tags, and variables, and the ability to run offline unit tests. See Creating an aggregator, Defining rules, The AMDL Generator, and Testing rules with offline unit tests for how to create, edit, and test rules. See Using AMDL and AMDL Reference for detailed information on how to use AMDL. For a step-by-step guide, see Tutorial: Defining Rules in Real-Time Decisioning.

Adjust your settings and workflow

As you process cases, you many need to adjust your configurations, settings, and processes.

The basics

To manage card fraud, first log into the Marqeta Dashboard and select RiskControl > Real-Time Decisioning from the sidebar. For more on accessing the Marqeta Dashboard, see Accessing the Marqeta Dashboard.

Access to Real-Time Decisioning requires an additional login. After signing into the Marqeta Dashboard, sign into Real-Time Decisioning as follows:

  • From the navigation panel, select RiskControl > Real-Time Decisioning.

  • Enter your Real-Time Decisioning username and password.

    Note
    If you do not have a Real-Time Decisioning username or password, or have forgotten your password, contact your Marqeta representative.
  • Select Sign in.
    If you repeatedly attempt to log in using an invalid username or password, your account may become temporarily locked and a warning message similar to the following is displayed:

    Temporarily locked account

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    If this happens, wait until your account is automatically unlocked, or a user administrator to unlock your account. If you are a user administrator, see Users for instructions on how to enable a disabled account.

After you log in, Real-Time Decisioning opens with the Real-Time Decisioning dashboard displayed:

Real-Time Decisioning

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Real-Time Decisioning is a role-based permission system. Your user role determines the features you can access. Based on your user role, you may not see all of the features described here.

Signing out of Real-Time Decisioning

To sign out, select the Profile icon in the top right corner, and then select Logout. Signing out returns you to the Real-Time Decisioning Sign In.

Note
Real-Time Decisioning automatically logs you out if your browser is inactive for 30 minutes. A dialog box appears that gives you the option to extend your session or log out.

How to…

The Real-Time Decisioning dashboard

The following are the main areas of the Real-Time Decisioning dashboard, accessible from the main menu at the top of the Real-Time Decisioning window. The available areas and menu items vary depending on your user role.

Real-Time Decisioning dashboard

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Area Description

Dashboard

View details about your account. For details, see Dashboard.

Events

View, search for, and generate events. For details, see Events.

Analytics

Set up and configure risk thresholds, aggregators, and business rules, and import and configure models. For details, see Analytics.

Settings

Configure users, teams, and other configuration settings. For details, see Settings.

System

View an audit log of user activity. For details, see System.

The following are common controls in the Real-Time Decisioning interface:

Documentation panel

If you have Documentation permission, you can access the Documentation panel to view context-sensitive advice on how to use the currently active Real-Time Decisioning options. To open the Documentation panel, select the Book icon at the top right of Real-Time Decisioning. To close the Documentation panel, select the Book icon again, or select X at the top right of the panel.

User profile

With user profile, you can view your own user information, set your preferences, and reset your password. To access your user profile, select the icon in the upper-right corner and then choose your email address from the dropdown list. You can also log out of Real-Time Decisioning by selecting the icon and choosing Logout from the dropdown list.

Search box

Use the search box to search the processed events and find events or entities that match your search criteria. For details on searching, see Searching for events and entities.

Messages

Error and informational messages.

Managing and navigating item lists

Several Real-Time Decisioning work areas display item lists of elements such as events that can be browsed, searched, or edited. In these lists, you can:

  • Change the number of items displayed on a page.

  • Navigate through the list.

  • Sort the list.

  • Search the list.

To change the number of items displayed on a page:

  • Select the dropdown list in the top-left corner.

  • Select 5, 10, 25, 50, or 100 to view that many items at a time.

To navigate a list:

  • To move to a specific list page, select the number button at the bottom of the list (e.g., 2). Your current page number is highlighted.

  • To move to the next list page, select Next.

  • To move to the previous list page, select Previous.

  • To see the next five list page numbers, select …​ on the right.

  • To see the previous five list page numbers, select …​ on the left.

  • To move to the first page, select First.

  • To move to the last list page containing at least one item, select Last.

To sort a list:

  • Select a column title at the top of a list. The symbol beside the column title becomes a single arrow icon, indicating that the list has been sorted by that column in ascending order.

  • Select again and the down arrow becomes an up arrow. A down arrow indicates that the list has been sorted by that column in descending order.

  • Select a sorted column title again to toggle between ascending and descending sorts.

Some lists can be searched to display only those entries in the list that match your search terms. These lists have a search box displayed to the right of the list header.

To search a list:

  • Type a search term into the search box. List items are filtered by the search term as you type. If your search terms do not match any items in the list, the box is highlighted in red.

  • To clear a search, delete the text in the search box or select the small icon to the right side of the search box.

Dashboard

Your Account dashboard is the first thing you see when you log into Real-Time Decisioning. It provides a quick view of your user account and permissions.

Dashboard

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The Profile section at the bottom of the dashboard shows the following information:

  • Username - Your username, which may not be the same as your display name.

  • Display Name - When perform Real-Time Decisioning actions, your display name is shown. If you do not have a display name, your username is shown.

  • User Roles - The roles you have been assigned determine which permissions you have and the functionality you can access.

  • Teams - Your team memberships.

  • Permissions - The permissions you have as a result of the roles you have been assigned.

Events

An event is a customer transaction. By monitoring events, Real-Time Decisioning recognizes potential fraud and financial crime. In Events, you can:

Viewing events

In the Events list you can view a list of events that were recently processed by Real-Time Decisioning. The Events list displays the results of event searches carried out using the search box in the header bar. This allows you to view events that relate to a particular entity or match specific search criteria.

Note
No events are displayed in the list until you either run an events search or filter the list.

The length of time that events remain available in the Events list is defined when your system was first set up. This is typically 60 days.

To view events:

  • Select Events from the main menu.

    Events

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  • To populate the Events list, either perform a search or filter the list. Each event includes one or more associated entities.

  • Choose an option to the left to display only events of a specific type, from a specific timeframe, or that match other specified criteria (see Filtering events).

Searching for events and entities

Real-Time Decisioning provides a set of tools and helpers to make it easy to find a specific event by searching for a unique ID (such as a unique transaction reference), or a particular combination of factors unique to that event—for example, the payment that occurred on a particular date, for a specific amount, with a particular account number.

You can search for entities by a complete or partial entity ID, and build searches to find events that match particular criteria. As you enter your search terms, you may see suggestions of relevant entities in the Search Preview section of the search box. Under the Entities heading, you are shown up to 10 entities whose events contain the value you entered in the search box. Under Events you also see how many events from the last 60 days contain the value you entered.

To search for events and entities:

  • Expand the search box to show helpful options by selecting the search box or the magnifying glass to the right of the box.

    Search helpers

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    The options are divided into three sections:

    • Fields - A list of searchable fields. You can search by any value that appears in any of these fields.

    • Operators - Use these to construct and combine searches.

    • Search preview - As you search, suggests entities with events in their histories that match your search.

  • Either start typing in the search box, or select helpers to assist the construction your search. The Fields section at the left lists the fields that you can search.

  • To search for a value across all your searchable fields, type that value into the search box. For example, to find all events that contain John in any event field, type John.

  • To search for terms that contain a space, put quotes around your search term. For example, to search for all events that contain John Smith, type "John Smith".

  • To search for a value in a specific field—for example, to search for all events where the customer name is John Smith—do one of the following:

    • Enter the name of the field to search in, followed by a colon, then the value to search for. As you start typing, field names that match what you type are highlighted and brought to the top of the list of fields. Field names containing a space must have quotes around them. For example, "Customer Name":"John Smith".

      Search

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    • In the Fields list in the helper options, select the name of the field to search in—for example, Customer Name—then enter the value you want to search for. You can do this even if you’ve started to type a field name, so this acts as an autocomplete function. The search box shows the name of the field to search in, then a colon, then the value you are searching for.

  • To search for part of a field value, use the asterisk (*) wildcard to represent any text. For example, to search for any name beginning with John, you can type John* to search in any field, or "Customer Name":John* to search specifically in the Customer Name field.

  • To search in fields that contain dates or datetimes, use yyyy-mm-dd format—for example, 2022-03-01 for 1st March 2022. To search for events containing 1st January 1980 in the Date of birth field you could use the following search:

    Search by date

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    You can also search for events between two dates, using the format [ from date TO to date ]. For example, to search for all events containing a date of birth between 1st January 1980 and 31st December 1989, you could use the following search:

    Search by date range

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  • To search for events containing a number greater than or less than a certain value, use the operators listed at the bottom of the Operators section. You can insert these operators, such as greater than or less than, by selecting them or by typing the appropriate symbols. For example, to search for events where the value in a field called Amount is greater than 150, you could use the following search:

    Search amount

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  • To link multiple search terms, use AND and OR. You can also use NOT to exclude certain terms. Type AND, OR, or NOT, or select the relevant operator in the Operators section. For example, to search for John Smith in the Customer Name field and 1st January 1980 in the Date of birth field, you could use the following search:

    Search name

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  • To search for a customer with the first name John or Smith and not the date of birth 1st January 1980, you could use the following search:

    Search date

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  • To see all the events that match your search, press Enter, select the Search button, or select the Events link in the Search Preview section. Your search query is also displayed in the Event List header, which allows you to see how your query has been interpreted—for example, how your ANDs and ORs have been grouped—to ensure that the query that was executed was the query you intended.

  • To clear your search results, select the X to the right of the search box.

Filtering events

You can filter your event results by:

  • Risk score

  • Event type

  • Time of event

To filter events:

  • Select Events in the main menu. No events are displayed in the list until you either run an events search or filter the list.

    Event list

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    Each item in the list is a single event, and information about that event is arranged in columns that can be shown or hidden based on your preferences. These columns are configurable, so you may not see all the columns shown above.

  • To temporarily add more columns to this view, use the Column Settings button.

  • Use the options on the left to filter the list to display events of a specific type or that match other specified criteria:

  • To sort the list by column, see Sorting events.

  • To see more details of a specific event in a panel displayed on the right, select the event row.

    Event details

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  • To switch between entities and show the models, rules, and tags assigned for different entities in the same event, select the appropriate entity from the Select entity dropdown list in the panel.

  • To see additional details about the event, select the Search button in the upper-right corner of the panel.

    Note
    Depending on your configuration, some confidential or personal data displayed in the Event list may be hidden or partially hidden.
  • The number of events that match your search and applied filters is displayed at the top. Active Filters at the top right shows how many filters are active. You can select this button to view details of the filters that are active, or remove filters. You can have up to one event type filter, one risk score filter, and one event time filter active at any one time, but you can have more than one amount filter.

  • To remove a filter, select the X to the right of the filter name.

Filtering by risk score

To filter the list of events or your search results by risk score:

  • Select Risk Score Filter in the sidebar.

  • If you have risk scores for more than one entity type, select the relevant entity type from the dropdown list.

  • Set the range of risk scores to show by either of the following:

    • Drag the sliders to set minimum and maximum values.

    • Enter a minimum and maximum value in the boxes at either end of the scale.

  • Select Update filter. This adds a risk score filter to your list of active filters or updates any risk score filter you have already applied. The filter definition is displayed at the bottom of the sidebar and is added to the filters in Active Filters in the Events header.

  • To remove the filter, select the X on the right of the definition.

Filtering by event type

To filter the list of events or search results by event type:

  • Select Event Type Filter in the sidebar.

  • Select the events to include using some combination of the following:

    • Select or deselect individual event types. If an event is not visible in the sidebar list, use the search bar to find it. Above the list of event types, you can see how many event types are selected out of the total number of event types (for example, 3/12).

    • Select All at the top of the list of event types, then deselect the event types to hide, or select None and select the event types to include.

  • Select Update filter. This adds an event type filter to your list of active filters, or updates any event type filter you have already applied. The filter definition is displayed at the bottom of the sidebar and is added to the filters in Active Filters in the Events header.

  • To remove the filter, select the X on the right of the definition.

Filtering by time of event

To filter the list of events or search results by the time of the event:

  • Select Event Time Filter in the sidebar.

  • Select a start date from the From calendar.

  • Enter a start time in the time box to the right of the From date.

  • Select an end date from the To calendar.

  • Enter an end time in the time box to the right of the To date.

  • Select Update filter. This adds the event time filter to your list of active filters, or updates any event time filter you have already applied. The filter definition is displayed at the bottom of the sidebar and is added to the filters in Active Filters in the Events header.

  • To remove the filter, select the X on the right of the definition.

Sorting events

The list of events can be sorted by up to two columns based on a primary/secondary sort method. The events list can be sorted by visible or hidden columns.

To sort the event list after you have applied any filters the list of events as described above:

  • Select Column Settings in the upper-right corner to display the Column Settings panel.

  • Set a column as the primary sort attribute by selecting the Ascending/descending arrows in the pri column. The list is sorted according to this column. For example, if you are sorting by Event Time, the latest events (if sorting in descending order) are shown at the top of the list.

  • Set a column as the secondary sort attribute by selecting the Ascending/descending arrows in the sec column. If two or more items in the list have the same value for the primary sort attribute, they are sorted according to this column.

  • To add additional columns to the list:

    • In the Column Settings panel, select Add columns.

    • Enter a name to use in the display.

    • Enter the path to the field (for example, if the field you are interested in is called value and is nested within the field amount, enter amount.value).

    • Select Create to add the column to the Events list.

  • To edit or delete a column you have added to the list:

    • In the Column settings panel, select the Wrench button .

    • Do either of the following:

      • Edit the name or JSON path for this column, then select Update.

      • Select Delete to remove this field from the Column Settings menu.

  • In the Visibility column, select or deselect the columns for display.

  • To hide the panel, select anywhere outside the panel.

Analytics

Using Real-Time Decisioning analytics you can define rules to evaluate card transactions for fraud risk. You can define your own custom operational models for downstream actions when a rule is triggered. Using an @tag you can send a message that drives any functionality your company has implemented for downstream use, such as @tag(review) or @tag(suspicious). This allows you to append metadata to transactions to be evaluated in real-time— for example, to integrate with a third-party to send an SMS message to your cardholder and ask them if they meant to make a transaction or to make a downstream API call.

Real-Time Decisioning provides a workflow for creating rules, aggregators, and tags and for reviewing and approving updates.

The Analytics user interface

To access the analytics definition and approval workflow, select Analytics from the main menu of the Real-Time Decisioning dashboard:

Analytics status

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The following Analytics areas are available for building your analytics, which you can access using the left navigation panel:

Status

Displays the current status of your analytics, including Staging Status, Business Rule Profile, and Configuration Difference. For details, see Managing your analytics configuration.

Aggregators

Use Aggregators to view, create, edit, delete, enable, or disable aggregators. For details on how to manage aggregators, see Managing aggregators.

Features

Provides an editor to create, modify, and manage features and other expressions that form part of Real-Time Decisioning analytics. Use the editor to view, create, edit, delete, enable, or disable rules.

Rules

Provides an editor to create, modify, and manage business rules and other expressions that form part of Real-Time Decisioning analytics. Use the editor to view, create, edit, delete, enable, or disable rules. For details on rules, see Defining rules.

Managing analytics status

When you select Status in the left navigation panel, you can view and manage:

  • Staging status

  • Business rule profile

  • Configuration difference

Staging status

Analytics provides a staging environment and a live environment:

  • In the staging environment, you can be navigate using the navigation pane to view and modify details of the configuration.

  • In the live environment you cannot make any changes, but can only review the configuration.

Staging Status shows the status of the current analytics configuration in a progress chart, with the date created, the number of changes, sandbox replays, the users who submitted and approved changes, and whether the version is live.

For more on the staging and live environments, see Managing your analytics configuration.

Business rule profile

The Business Rule Profile below the Staging contains information on historical global states stored for all entities.

Global states build up population-level entity profiles over time as more behaviors are captured. The exact definition of what population-level data is stored and displayed is controlled by expressions that are written and managed in Analytics > Rules (see Defining rules).

Data stored by global states for each entity type is displayed in two columns:

  • The left column indicates the variable name.

  • The right column displays the stored data.

  • This data may be one of the following types, as indicated by the icon to the left of the variable name:

Data types

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Configuration difference

Configuration Difference shows how the analytics configuration in the version you are viewing differs from the previous or another version. For example, if you are viewing the staging environment, there are differences between the staging environment and the live environment. If you are viewing the live environment, there are differences between the live environment and the previous analytics configuration version.

This displays a list of the changes, categorized into Rules and Aggregators. Each row shows the name of the analytic that was changed, and the type of change:

  • Added - For an aggregator, feature, risk level, model, or rule that is present in the configuration version being viewed, but not in the previous version.

  • Removed - For an aggregator, feature, risk level, model, or rule that is present in the previous configuration version, but not in the version being viewed.

  • Edited - For an aggregator, feature, risk level, model, or rule that is present in both the configuration version being viewed and in the previous version, but has been edited in some way—for example, a risk threshold changed or a rule was altered, activated, or deactivated).

To see the changes made to a specific aggregator, feature, rule, or model, select anywhere on the row showing the name of the relevant analytic.

Analytics that have changed

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The differences between the staging configuration and the version you are comparing to are displayed underneath. Elements that are present in the version you are viewing but not in the previous version are highlighted in green; elements that are present in the previous version but not in the version you are viewing are highlighted in red.

To view the differences between historical versions:

  • Select Compare versions. In the popup window, select the versions to compare.

    Compare versions

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  • Once you’ve selected two versions to compare, the changes display underneath, categorized by the type of analytics.

  • Select the X button at the top-right corner of the dashboard to return to the Status view.

Working with analytics workflows

Real-Time Decisioning provides a built-in analytics definition and approval workflow, which you can modify for your specific use case. The following sections describe what to consider when developing a workflow, and considerations for making and reviewing changes:

About approval workflow configurations

There are two ways to configure user roles and permissions to ensure a four-eyes authorization process. In the default approach, there are two user roles—one with permission to make analytics changes and submit them for review (but not approve or reject those changes)—and another with permission to approve or reject changes (but not submit them for review). Assuming the default roles and permissions, an Analytics Specialist can make changes in the staging environment but not approve or reject, and a Supervisor can approve changes but not make them.

The alternative is to enable users with a specific role, such as Analytics Specialist, to make changes, submit them for review, and approve or reject analytics changes by granting them both the Analytics Version Acceptor and Analytics Version Creator permissions. This enables an individual user to make analytics changes and submit them for review, but not approve or reject an analytics staging version that contains the changes they made. In this case, a user can approve or reject changes made by other users, but never their own changes.

You can also configure the workflow so that users can push changes directly from staging to live without needing another user to review them.

Managing your analytics configuration

Real-Time Decisioning allows you to develop configurations in a staged environment before deploying them live. To view a staged or live configuration:

  • Select Analytics in the main menu.

  • Choose the environment you want to view — Staging or Live from the dropdown list in the upper left corner.

    View live analytics

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  • Choose the area to explore from the left navigation panel. When viewing the live analytics configuration, the color of the analytics bar changes to pink and shows the date and time when the current configuration was reviewed and approved, with the username of the user who reviewed it on the right.

  • To see a full list of historical analytics versions, select Version History. The version status is shown in the progress chart. For more information, see Version history. The decision after reviewing changes can be one of the following:

    • Approved - The changes in this version were approved and promoted to the live environment.

    • Rejected - The changes in this version were rejected and did not go live.

    • Cancelled - The user who originally submitted this version for review canceled the review before it was approved or rejected.

  • To expand a collapsed collection and show the individual elements, select the right-facing arrowhead to the left of a collapsed collection’s name.

  • To expand all collections shown in the Business Rule Profile, select the Expand all button at the top of the Business Rule Profile section.

  • To copy the entire global state profile to the clipboard, select the Copy all button at the top of the Business Rule Profile section.

  • To copy an individual entity’s global state, including all variables, or an individual variable, or an individual value to the clipboard, select the Copy icon that appears when you hover your mouse cursor over an individual value in this section.

Editing your analytics configuration

To edit your analytics configuration:

Reviewing and approving changes

Before any changes made in the staging environment become live, they must be submitted for review, and the changes approved by a user with the appropriate permissions. Changes approved are applied to the live analytics configuration; the old live analytics configuration is preserved as a historical version which can be viewed using Version History. You can revert to any previous live configuration to undo changes that have been submitted and approved.

Changes made in the staging environment are submitted and approved or rejected in bulk. You cannot select specific changes to be reviewed, or approve some changes and reject others. However, if changes you and other users have made in the staging environment are rejected, they are returned to the staging environment, enabling you to undo or fine-tune the configuration changes that resulted in the rejection.

To submit changes in the staging version for review:

  • Select Submit review on the right side of the Analytics menu bar. You can also select Submit in the Analytics Configuration Workflow.

  • Enter a comment in the comment box that appears below the Analytics menu bar. If a minimum comment length is set, you must enter a comment of at least that length. Comments must be less than 255 characters long.

  • Select Submit to submit the changes in the staging version for review.

    When you have submitted changes for review, the indicator on the left side of the Analytics header bar changes to display a padlock. A bell icon is displayed next to Pending Review. On the left side is displayed the name of the user who submitted the changes for review and the date and time at which they did this. The progress chart is updated to reflect this version is now pending review.

  • At this point, no further changes can be made to the staging environment until either:

  • To cancel review of a version you have submitted for review:

    • Select the Cancel button on the right side of the Analytics menu bar.

    • Select the Yes button to cancel and re-enable editing of the staging environment or No to leave the current analytics configuration in review.

Once a review has been canceled, the changes you submitted return to the staging environment, allowing you to make further changes, and you or another user can submit the changes for review again.

Approving the configuration

To approve an analytics configuration that has been submitted for review (if you have the relevant permissions):

  • Select the Approve button on the right side of the Analytics menu bar.

  • Enter a comment in the comment box that appears below the menu bar. If a minimum comment length is set, you must enter a comment of at least that length. Comments must be less than 255 characters long.

  • Select Approve to approve the changes and promote them to become the live configuration.

Rejecting the configuration

To reject an analytics configuration that has been submitted for review:

  • Select the Reject button on the right side of the Analytics header bar.

  • Enter a comment in the comment box that appears below the header bar. The restrictions described above (minimum and maximum length) apply here, too.

  • Select Reject to reject the changes and return them to the staging environment.

Reverting to another version

After a new analytics configuration version has been approved, you can revert to any previous live configuration. Any historical versions that were rejected, or submitted for review and then canceled, appear in the Version History list.

In the live version, you can also revert to the live analytics version, canceling at once all changes made in the staging environment, allowing you to start again from a clean slate.

Reverting to a historical version replaces any changes currently in the staging environment with the changes in that version—that is, the changes, if approved, revert the live analytics configuration to its previous state.

To revert to a previous analytics configuration:

  • In the main menu, select Analytics.

  • Select a version from the version dropdown list, or select Version History and then select View version in the appropriate row.

  • Select Revert this version in the Analytics header bar.

  • In the Revert to Version window, you can see details of the changes between the environment you are currently viewing, and the version you wish to revert to.

  • In the Comment box below the changes, enter an optional comment explaining why you’re reverting to the chosen version.

  • Select Revert to confirm the reversion and replace the current staging environment with the changes in the historical version. To revert the live analytics configuration to these settings, you must now submit the changes in the staging environment for review, and they must be approved.

Version history

Version history allows you to see details of each analytics configuration version that has been submitted for review. To see a full list of historical analytics versions:

  • In the upper left corner, select Version History. When viewing a historical version, the color of the Analytics header bar changes to gray. The user who reviewed the changes is shown on the right, with the date and time the changes were reviewed. The information is arranged in columns:

    • Version - The version number, assigned automatically. The initial system configuration is version 0. The version number increases by 1 each time a new configuration is submitted for review.

    • Date - The date and time that this version was reviewed (or submitted, if that version hasn’t yet been reviewed).

    • Submitted by - The username of the user who submitted this version for review.

    • Reviewed by - The username of the user who reviewed (approved, rejected, or canceled) this version.

    • Status - The status of this version:

      • Live - The live version.

      • Approved - The changes in this version were approved and promoted to the live environment.

      • Rejected - The changes in this version were rejected and did not go live.

      • Cancelled - The user who originally submitted this version for review canceled the review before it was approved or rejected.

      • In review - This version has been submitted for review, but no decision has been made.

    • Comment - The comment added by the user who reviewed this version (or submitted it for review, if it hasn’t yet been reviewed).

  • The View version link to the right of each row in this table allows you to view the difference between the relevant version and the live environment (see Managing your analytics configuration).

  • To view more information on a specific historical version, select a row of the Version History list. This displays the period for which this version was live, the date and time this version was submitted for review, and the date and time it was approved, rejected, or canceled, by whom, and the comment entered by each user.

Pushing the configuration changes live

To push analytics configuration changes directly to the live version (if you have the correct permissions):

  • In the staging environment, select the Push directly to live button on the right side of the Analytics header bar.

  • Enter a comment in the comment box that appears below the Analytics header bar. The restrictions described above (minimum and maximum length) apply here, too.

  • Select Submit to submit the changes in the staging version for review.

Aggregators

An aggregator combines the output scores of fraud detection models with the results of business rules, and can generate tags based on the combination of these results. An aggregator takes input from rules and models and outputs a single score, which is calculated by weighting the input scores. A rule outputs a simple Boolean value—1 if the rule triggers, 0 if it doesn’t. A model outputs a risk score between 0 and 1. The diagram below shows an example aggregator, which uses the outputs from two rules and one model to generate a score.

Aggregator

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You can set one or more thresholds so that the aggregator generates tags when the total score exceeds a certain value.

Note
Though you cannot create or edit models, Marqeta can create a model for your event stream that generates risk scores for your events. In this case, you can use the score output by this model in your aggregator.
Viewing a list of aggregators

To view a list of an existing aggregators:

  • Select Analytics from the main menu, and then select Aggregators.

  • The list of aggregators is displayed, along with the entity types, inputs, and risk levels for each.

  • To find a specific aggregator, use the search box and navigation tools if necessary.

Creating an aggregator

To create a new aggregator:

  • Select Analytics from the main menu, and then select Aggregators.

  • Select Create Aggregator in the top right corner of the Aggregators list.

  • Enter a name for the aggregator in the Name box.

  • Select an entity type for this aggregator to score from the dropdown list.

  • Define the input types for your aggregator:

    • Select Add Input.

    • From the Type dropdown list, select the type of analytic—*Model* or Rule.

    • From the Model or Rule dropdown list, select the specific rule or model you want to configure from the dropdown list.

    • Set the weighting by entering a value in the Weight box or by using the up and down arrows to the right of the box. This weighting is a score multiplier applied to the model or rule output.

  • To add any additional inputs, repeat the above steps. Any input can be removed by selecting the X button.

  • Set at least one risk level—that is, a threshold above which the aggregator triggers. This also allows you to specify whether the aggregator assigns any tags.

    • Select the Add Risk Level button.

    • Enter a threshold value in the Lowerbound box.

  • To assign one or more tags to an event if the risk score threshold is exceeded, check the box next to the each tag you want to assign.

    Note
    If multiple risk levels are configured, the output of the aggregator is the risk level with the highest lowerbound value that has been exceeded by an event’s aggregated risk score.
  • Select Create.

Editing an aggregator

To edit an existing aggregator:

  • Select Analytics from the main menu, and then select Aggregators.

  • From the aggregator list, select Edit in the aggregator row.

  • Add or delete risk levels, change whether the aggregator generates tags, or configure inputs and weightings as described above.

  • Select Update.

Deleting an aggregator

To delete an aggregator:

  • Select Analytics from the main menu, and then select Aggregators.

  • Do one fo the following:

    • Select Delete to the right of the appropriate row of the aggregators list.

    • Select Edit in aggregator row, then select Delete in the top right corner.

  • In the popup window, select Confirm Delete.

Defining rules

Use the AMDL Editor to create, modify, and manage business rules and other expressions that form the basis of Real-Time Decisioning’s analytics. These expressions are written in the ADML, which is a dedicated language for writing fraud detection rules. For more detailed information on AMDL and how to write business rules and expressions, see Using AMDL and AMDL Reference. For a step-by-step tutorial, see Tutorial: Defining Rules in Real-Time Decisioning.

Accessing the AMDL Editor

To open the AMDL Editor:

  • Select Analytics from the main menu, then select Rules. The AMDL Editor is made up of a header and two panes—the Rules Directory pane on the left, and the AMDL Editor itself on the right.

    Rules Editor

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  • To expand the AMDL Editor to fill the entire window, select the Expand button in the upper right. To return to the original view, select the Expand button again.

Managing rules using the Rules Directory

The Rules Directory pane on the left side of the AMDL Editor allows you to view, search, and manage business rules, including organizing these rules into directories, and exporting them to create a backup snapshot of all your business rules.

Because all analytics apply to one specific entity type, the left pane organizes AMDL expressions (rules, state, global, list, var, and values definitions) into a number of top-level directories, each corresponding to a type of entity. AMDL expressions can be further organized by creating subdirectories within these.

To expand one of these directories to show all the AMDL expressions and subdirectories within it, select the directory name or the Folder icon next to it. To collapse one of these directories and hide its contents, select the directory name, or the Folder icon next to it.

A directory may contain one or more AMDL expressions. The scope of the expression is indicated by the icon to the left of the name:

Expression Scope

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For more information on AMDL scopes and their uses, see Scope in the AMDL Reference.

Managing directories and subdirectories

To create a new subdirectory:

  • Select Create directory in the header bar.

  • From the Parent directory dropdown list, select the parent directory where you want to create the new directory. Subdirectories can only be created within the top-level (entity type) directories. You cannot create subsubdirectories within user-created subdirectories.

  • Enter the name of your new subdirectory in the Directory name text box.

  • Select Create.

To rename subdirectory:

  • Select the Vertical dots icon next to the name of the subdirectory.

  • From the dropdown list, select Edit directory.

  • In the Edit directory window, edit the directory name.

  • Select Edit directory to confirm the new name.

To delete a subdirectory:

  • Select the Vertical dots icon next to the name of the subdirectory.

  • From the dropdown list, select Delete directory.

  • In the popup window, select Delete.

Enabling and disabling expressions

The Rules Directory pane can also be used to enable or disable rules and other AMDL expressions. Disabled rules are shown with a struck through name. A disabled AMDL expression does not process any events or perform any actions.

To disable all the expressions in a directory:

  • Select the Vertical dots icon next to the name of the directory.

  • From the dropdown list, select Disable all.

To enable all the expressions in a directory (where all the expressions in that directory are already disabled):

  • On the right of the directory, select the Vertical dots icon.

  • From the dropdown list, select Enable all.

Exporting and importing expressions

You can export your AMDL expressions along with their associated unit tests as .amdl files, and later import them back into your Real-Time Decisioning environment.

To export all AMDL expressions, along with their associated unit tests:

  • At the top right corner of the Rules Directory pane, select the Import/Export icon.

  • From the dropdown list, select Export. This creates a .amdl file, which can later be imported into Real-Time Decisioning.

To import the AMDL expressions and tests from an exported .amdl file:

  • At the top right corner of the Rules Directory pane, select the Import/Export icon.

  • From the dropdown list, select Import.

    Import

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  • Select Choose a file and then select an .amdl file. A list of all the AMDL expressions in the file to be imported are displayed.

    Import Expressions

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  • To replace existing AMDL expressions with those that have matching names from the .amdl file, check the Replace existing definitions box. If this box is unchecked, expressions in the .amdl file with the same name as an existing expression are not imported. To confirm that these expressions are to be replaced by the ones from the imported file, enter REPLACE in the Confirm replace box.

  • Select Submit to import AMDL expressions from the specified .amdl file. When the process completes, expressions that have been successfully imported are highlighted in green. Expressions with the same name as an existing expression that were not replaced are highlighted in red.

To export a summary of all enabled rules:

  • At the top right corner of the Rules Directory pane, select the Import/Export icon.

  • From the dropdown list, select Export rules summary (CSV). This creates a rules summary as a .csv file.

Defining expressions with the AMDL Editor

The AMDL Editor is an integrated development environment (IDE) within the Real-Time Decisioning dashboard that enables you to create and modify AMDL expressions. When you create or edit an AMDL expression, it is displayed as a tab in the Rules work area. Selecting a tab allows you to view and modify the AMDL code for that expression. The name of an AMDL expression with unsaved changes is shown in italics.

Note
Each tab must contain only one expression. If you are defining a new expression, it must be done in a new tab, or you must delete the existing expression and replace it with the new one.

When you select an existing expression from the Rules Directory (see Managing rules using the Rules directory) that expression appears in a new tab. If the rule is live, statistics about rule execution is displayed and the total CPU time usage over the last five minutes is displayed next the name. To close a tab, select the X in the right corner of the tab.

To create a new expression:

  • Do either of the following to create a new tab:

    • In the upper-right corner, select Create definition, select a directory, and then select Create.

    • In the Rules Directory pane on the left side of the work area, select the vertical dots icon to the right of the directory name and select Create definition.

  • Define the expression by entering AMDL code as described in Using AMDL and AMDL Reference or use the generator as described in The AMDL Generator.

To open an existing expression in the AMDL Editor, allowing you to view and edit the AMDL code:

  • In the Rules Directory pane, open a directory and select the name of the expression to edit.

  • Edit the expression by entering AMDL code as described in Using AMDL and AMDL Reference or use the generator as described in The AMDL Generator.

AMDL code is color-coded according to code type—for example, string, keyword, or operator. Code lines are numbered along the left. If a line contains an error—for example, due to incorrect syntax—an X is displayed to the left of the corresponding line number. Only the first error in the expression is highlighted. Placing your mouse cursor over the X displays a popup containing the error message.

Entering expressions

If you are familiar with AMDL syntax, you can directly create AMDL expressions by typing in the editor. While typing, code suggestions are displayed in a popup below the current code line. You can browse code suggestions using the scroll bar to the right of the suggestion popup. The type of each code suggestion is indicated on the right of the suggestion popup. Selecting a suggestion completes the code in the editor. Using a suggestion marked as a snippet creates a template, including dummy variables which you can replace with the correct variable names. Pressing the Enter key when the suggestion popup is displayed completes the code using the currently highlighted suggestion.

Note
Suggestions of different types may contain the same text—for example, a local variable called set and the code snippet @set).
Managing expressions

To enable or disable the current expression:

  • Select Enabled or Disabled toggle in the editor toolbar.

  • Select the Save button to save the change.

To enable or disable all of the expressions in a directory:

  • In the Rules Directory pane, select the vertical dots icon to the right of the directory name and select Disable all or Enable all.

  • Select the Save button to save the change. The expression is not disabled until you save the change.

To move an expression to a different directory or subdirectory:

  • Select Details in the AMDL Editor toolbar.

  • Select the directory you want to move your expression to from the Directory dropdown list.

  • Select Save to move your expression to the selected directory. Expressions can only be moved within an entity type, and not from one entity type to another.

To delete the current expression:

  • Select Delete in the AMDL Editor toolbar.

  • In the popup window, select Delete to permanently delete the expression.

AMDL expressions created using the AMDL Generator wizard or written manually are displayed in the AMDL Editor.

Navigating, searching for, and replacing code

To search within the text of an AMDL expression:

  • In the AMDL editor, press Ctrl + F.

  • Enter the text to search for in the search box.
    This highlights all occurrences of the search string within the AMDL expression you are currently viewing.

  • To highlight the next instance of the search string, select the > button.

  • To highlight the previous instance of the search string, select the < button.

To replace text within an AMDL expression:

  • In the AMDL Editor, press Ctrl + F.

  • Enter the text to search for in the search box.

  • Select the + button below the search box.

  • Enter the text to replace your search string with in the Replace with box.

  • Do either of the following:

    • Select Replace to replace the currently highlighted instance of your search string with the text in the replace with box.

    • Select All to replace all instances of the search string.

  • To hide the search and replace box, select the X button.

  • Once an expression is complete and contains no errors, select Save to save the expression. This adds the expression to the list in the rules directory pane to the left of the AMDL Editor.

The AMDL Generator

The AMDL Generator is a wizard that enables you to create AMDL expressions (rules, state declarations, and global declarations) and add pre-generated code snippets to existing or new AMDL expressions using a simple user interface. The AMDL Generator allows you to create AMDL expressions without knowing AMDL syntax, although the expressions you can create by writing directly in AMDL can be more powerful and complex.

Creating a rule

A rule includes one or more conditions that determine if the rule triggers. Each condition consists of:

  • A left operand: A data field from the event being processed, or a stored state variable, to be compared to the right operand.

  • A right operand: A fixed value or data list.

The two operands are compared using a comparison operator. In the AMDL Generator you can add multiple conditions to the rule. Conditions can be combined so that a rule triggers when all of the conditions are true, or when at least one of the conditions is true.

To create a rule using the AMDL Generator:

  • Go to Analytics > Rules and open a tab in the Rules Editor by either creating a new expression or opening an existing expression.

  • From the Rules Editor toolbar, select AMDL Generator.

  • From the dropdown list, select Rule.

  • In the AMDL Generator window, enter a variable for the new rule in the Add a variable called…​ text box.

  • Deselect Trigger Alert.

  • To specify an event type that this rule applies to, select the event type from the Event Type dropdown list. If you do not select an event type, this rule applies to all events.

  • To add the first condition:

    • Select an event data field or stored state or global variable from the Select left operand…​ dropdown list.

      Note
      If you have selected an event type in the above steps, only data fields in that event type, plus state variables, are shown in the dropdown list. If you have not, a list of all event types (in bold), with all the data fields in each event type, as well as state variables (under the heading state), are shown.
    • Select a comparison operator from the dropdown list to the right of the left operand list. Which operators are shown depends on the type of the left operand selected in the previous step. For example, if that event data field contains a number, operators related to numbers—such as, greater than, less than, or equals—are shown:

      • List operators: The list operators In List and Not In List allow you check whether a value in an event data field appears in a data list (see Data Lists for more about data lists and how to create them).

      • Datetime operators: Is Before allows you to check whether a datetime in an event data field is more than a certain length of time ago. This is specified using an ISO 8601-standard duration. For example, to check whether a datetime is more than one day and 12 hours ago, you would enter 1d12h as the right operand. Is After allows you to check, in a similar way, whether a datetime in an event data field is more recent than a certain date, specified using a duration in the same way.

        Note
        Comparisons are performed using the datetime field in the event data, so that the comparisons relate to the date and time when the event took place. For example, selecting Is Before and entering a right operand of 30m creates a condition which is true if the left operand is a datetime more than 30 minutes before the datetime of the event being processed by the rule.
    • Enter a right operand for comparison to the event data field (the left operand). This should be of the same type—such as string or number—as the event data field it is being compared to (the left operand), unless the comparison operator is In List or Not In List. For In List or Not In List, you can select an existing data list from a dropdown list, or if a duration is required (see above). If an event data field has a list of acceptable values, you can select a value from this list, which is displayed as a dropdown list).

  • To add more conditions to a rule:

    • Select the Add Rule button.

    • Repeat step 7 above.

    • Select Match ALL of the following rules or Match ANY of the following rules to indicate whether the rule should trigger when all conditions are true, or when at least one is true. You can delete one of these conditions by selecting the X button to the right of it, but a rule must contain at least one condition.

  • Select Submit to create the rule. The AMDL code that defines the new rule appears in the current tab of the AMDL Editor.

  • Select Save to save the rule, at which point the name you gave the rule appears in the current tab.

Creating a state expression

A state expression stores historical data about a particular entity. When you define a state expression, you have to option to define one or more a conditions in the same way as for rules, and can define whether the state variable is updated if all of the conditions are true, or if at least one of them is true. For more information, see State in Using AMDL. To create a state expression in the AMDL Generator:

  • Select State from the AMDL Generator dropdown list.

  • Enter the name of your new state variable in the Add a variable called…​ text box. This name must be unique.

  • To apply this expression to an event type, select the type from the Event Type dropdown list. If you do not select an event type, this expression attempts to store event data for all events.

  • Select an event data field to store the data from the Select schema property…​ dropdown list.

    Note
    If you have selected an event type in the above steps, only data fields for that event type are shown in the dropdown list. If you have not, a list of all event types (in bold), with all the data fields in each event type, are shown.
  • To include a condition in the expression, select Add Rule. The selected event data field will be saved to the state variable you are defining only if this condition is true. You can delete any of these conditions by selecting the X button to the right of it.

  • To add another event data field to save as an entity state variable: Select the Add Value button and repeat steps 4 through 5. If you choose to add more than one value in this way, each value must have at least one condition associated with it. In this way, a state declaration can be created which saves a different value from a different event data field, depending on certain conditions.

  • Select Submit to create your new state expression. The AMDL code that defines the new expression appears in the current tab in the AMDL Editor.

  • Select Save to save the rule, at which point the name you gave the new expression is displayed in the current tab.

Creating a global expression

A global expression saves data from events related to any entity to a single, global variable accessible to all AMDL expressions. For more information, see Global state in Using AMDL. To create a global expression:

  • Select Global from the AMDL Generator dropdown list.

  • Follow the steps for creating a state expression in the above section, beginning with step 2.

Adding a tag

Using a tag you can trigger effects and actions when an event or a series of events matches a certain set of criteria. For more on tags, see Tags in output in Using AMDL. To add one or more tags to a rule:

  • From the AMDL Generator dropdown list, select Tag.

  • From the Namespace dropdown list, select a namespace.

  • Depending on the type of namespace you select, you can do either of the following:

    • Enter text in the Value box that will appear in the tag.

    • Select one of the possible values from the selected namespace using the Value dropdown list.

  • To add the tag to the expression, select Submit.

Adding annotations

The other options in the AMDL Generator allow you to modify existing expressions by adding annotations to the expression in the currently open tab. These annotations appear at the start of an expression. An AMDL expression can have any number of annotations, but an expression that has more than one field-type annotation—for example, an @array annotation and a @rollingAverage annotation—is not executed. For more information, see Annotations in Using AMDL.

Testing rules with offline unit tests

The AMDL Editor environment allows you to run offline unit tests of rules you have written. These tests can be used to test that rules trigger (and don’t trigger) correctly, given a known event and known initial entity state, or that AMDL expressions which assign values to state or global variables do so as expected.

Individual test cases can be created through a combination of initial state (the values of state and global variables before the AMDL expression is executed), the input event (which the AMDL expression processes), and the expected value of any variables modified by the expression. Tests of rules can be written to check that the rule triggers in cases where it should trigger, and does not trigger in cases where it shouldn’t; tests of state and global expressions can be used to check whether the expression assigns the correct value to the correct variable.

For more on testing rules, see Test your rule in Tutorial: Defining Rules in Real-Time Decisioning.

To show the Tests panel, in the AMDL Editor toolbar, select Tests.

Unit Test Panel

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The Tests panel is made up of a pane on the left, which contains a list of all the unit tests associated with the current expression; a pane on the right, which shows details of an individual unit test; and a toolbar at the top of the pane, which contains several buttons.

To create a new unit test:

  • Select the + button in the left pane of the Tests panel. This creates a new test called New test. Select the test name to bring up the test details pane.

    Fraud Test Details Pane

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  • (Optional) Set up the initial AMDL state. If the expression being tested refers to a state, global, or temporary variable, the initial value of that variable for this test case can be specified here, using AMDL syntax.

  • Specify an event to test the expression with. Do either of the following:

    • Enter the event data in JSON format.

    • Create the event using the event generator:

      • Select the Generator button in the Input Event panel.

      • Select an event type from the Events dropdown list.

      • (Optional) Edit the values for each of the listed keys. Mandatory fields are indicated with an asterisk (*). To add an optional field, check the checkbox to the left of that field.

      • Select the Submit button to generate JSON-formatted payload data for this event.

        Note
        You can edit the JSON-formatted event data in the "Input Event" pane.
  • (Optional) Specify expectations for state and global variables after the input event (specified in step 2 above) has been processed, to test how the execution of the AMDL expression has changed these variables. This should be specified in the form of an AMDL rule that triggers (evaluates to true) if the test passes—that is, if the expression performs correctly and the final values of the relevant variables are as expected. Because this is a temporary rule, its name does not have to be unique.

  • (Optional) Using the dropdown list to the right of the Tests panel, select whether this rule should trigger or not trigger under the conditions defined in steps 2 through 4. By default, the test does not check whether the rule triggers or not. this is ideal for testing state or global expressions, for example, as these kinds of AMDL expression do not trigger.

To create a duplicate of an existing test:

  • Select the test to duplicate from the list of tests in the left pane.

  • Select Duplicate.

To delete a test:

  • Select the test to delete from the list of tests in the left pane.

  • Select Delete.

To rename an existing test:

  • Select the test to rename from the list of tests in the left pane.

  • Select Edit.

  • Edit the name of the test.

  • Select Save.

To run all the unit tests on the current expression, select Run Tests. This shows the results of all the tests. Each test has an icon displayed to the left of it—an orange dot for a successful test, or a gray dot for a failed test.

If the expression did not execute (for example, because it refers to a field not present in the input event), a warning is displayed.

A test has failed if the test was set to check whether an expression triggered and it did not, or vice versa, or if any of the state expectations are false once the input event has been processed. An expression that does not execute is regarded as not having triggered. By selecting its name, each test can be expanded to show more information, or (if it is already expanded), collapsed to hide the additional detail.

The results of each test can be viewed in more detail by expanding the results of a test, then selecting Debug Log. This displays a full execution trace, with details of the execution of the expression being tested, as well as the entity and global state after the expression was executed. This can be hidden by selecting Debug Log again. If state expectations were specified, the temporary rules which triggered and those which did not are shown under Expectations.

To return to editing unit tests when viewing test results, select the Edit button. When editing unit tests, the results of the latest unit tests can be showed by selecting the Results button.

To run all the unit tests specified for all of your AMDL expressions, select Run all tests at the bottom of the rules directory pane on the left side of the Tests panel. While the tests are being run, a progress bar is shown. Once the tests have been completed, the number of tests run (plus how many of those tests failed) are displayed at the bottom of the rules directory pane.

Select the i button to see a list of AMDL expressions, each displayed with a test status icon:

  • A green circle with a checkmark indicates that all unit tests for that expression passed.

  • An exclamation mark inside a red circle indicates at least one test failed.

  • A gray circle indicates that there are no tests defined for that expression.

Selecting the name of an expression in the pane to the left of this list shows the results of the unit tests associated with that expression.

Settings

Use Settings options to configure the following:

To access Settings, select Settings from the main menu. The settings you can access depend on your user role and access permissions.

Data lists

Use data lists to create lists of entities or other data. Data lists are complex tables that rules can use to look up information that can be updated manually or programmatically. For example, a rule might check whether an event originates from a suspect IP address that appears in a data list.

Each item in a data list must have an identifier, which must be unique. A data list typically has the following optional properties:

  • It is organized as a table with one or more columns.

  • Each item in the data list forms a row in the table.

  • In a list of entities, this could be the entity ID, for example.

  • In a list of IP addresses, this might be the IP address itself.

  • Each item can have one or more properties, which form the other columns in the table.

Data lists can be created manually or can be imported. For more information, see Adding items to a data list.

To view current data lists:

  • From the main menu, select Settings, then select Data Lists from the sidebar. For each data list that is visible to you, the Data Lists list shows:

    • Name - The name of the list.

    • Full name - The full name of this list to be used in business rules.

    • Values - The number of entries in the list.

  • To filter the list, use the search box.

Creating a data list

To create a new, blank data list:

  • From the main menu, select Settings, then select Data Lists from the sidebar.

  • Select Create Data List.

  • Enter a name for the data list. The name must contain only letters and numbers with no spaces.

  • Select Create in the top-right corner.

Editing data list properties

To change the properties of an existing data list:

  • From the main menu, select Settings, then select Data Lists from the sidebar.

  • To the right of the relevant list, select Edit.

  • Edit the properties as described in Creating a data list.

  • Select Update.

You cannot change the names of existing lists.

Deleting a data list

To delete a data list:

  • From the main menu, select Settings, then select Data Lists from the sidebar.

  • In the list of data lists, select Delete at the right of the list, then select Confirm Delete.

Manually adding values to a data list

To manually add values to a data list:

  • From the main menu, select Settings, then select Data Lists from the sidebar.

  • Select the name of the data list in the Name column.

  • Select Add items manually to open the Add item dialog box.

  • Enter a unique identifier for this item in the Identifier box.

    Note
    The identifier is stored as a string, and Real-Time Decisioning does not verify that the identifier is of the correct data type. Be sure that you enter a valid identifier so that the list items can be utilized in rules.
  • If the data list already contains properties, such as other columns, specify a value for one or more of these in the Properties section by entering the value in the text box next to the property name.

  • To add a new property to this item, select Add Property, enter the name of the new property (the column header) in the Key text box, and the value for the new item in the Value box. You can remove any new properties by selecting X to the right of the Key box. All properties are optional, so no other items in the list are required.

  • To include a comment, enter the comment in the Comment box. If a minimum comment length is set, you must enter a comment of at least that length. Comments must be less than 255 characters long.

  • Select Add Item.

Editing data lists

To edit a data list:

  • From the main menu, select Settings, then select Data Lists from the sidebar.

  • Select the list to edit.

  • To see the details of an individual item in a data list, select anywhere on the row. This displays the details of the individual item, including any comment appended by the user who last added or updated the item.

  • To delete a value from a data list, at the right of the row, select Delete, and then select Confirm Delete.

To edit an item in a data list:

  • Select Edit to the right of the item in the item list.

  • To edit properties, if the data list contains properties, such as other columns, you can specify or edit the value for one or more of these in the Properties section by entering the value or editing the existing value in the text box next to the property name.

  • To add a new property to this item, select Add Property. Enter the name of the new property (the column header) in the Key text box, and the value for the new item in the Value box. You can remove any new properties by selecting X at the right side of the Key box.

  • To enter a comment, enter the comment in the Comment box. If a minimum comment length is set, you must enter a comment of at least that length. Comments must be less than 255 characters long.

  • Select Edit item to save your changes.

Viewing and searching for items in data lists

To view or search for items in a data list:

  • In Settings > Data Lists, select the name of the data list to display the List items tab.

    Search a data list

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  • To filter the items of a data list in order to find only those that match particular criteria:

    • Select the Identifier dropdown list in the List Items menu bar.

    • To view only those items in the list that have a certain value for a chosen property, select the appropriate property.

    • Enter the value of the property to search for in the Search box. The filtered results display when you have finished typing the value, and show only those items that match your search criteria.

  • Select the Refresh button to display any newly added value to this list during your search.

  • To remove the search criteria and view the entire data list, select the X button next to the value entered in the Search box.

Importing a batch of items to a data list

Instead of manually adding items to a data list, values can be imported as a comma-separated values (CSV) file. The CSV file must be arranged in one or more columns, and the first row must be a header row. One of the columns acts as the unique identifier for each row. This column must be headed _id.

Note
Do not import large data lists—in excess of 100,000 entries—using this method. To import a data list with more than 100,000 entries, contact your Marqeta representative.
Note
When using batch import, any columns and values for identifiers present in both the existing data list and the CSV file are overwritten with the columns and values for those identifiers from the CSV file. This is the case even if the existing data list contains columns and values that are not present in the CSV file.

To add items to a list using batch import:

  • In Settings > Data Lists, select the data list.

  • Select Batch tasks.

  • Select Choose a file, then select the CSV file to import. The number of new items to be imported is shown, as well as the number and list of new headers—that is, data list columns—to be created.

  • To include a comment, enter it in the Comment box. If a minimum comment length is set, you must enter a comment of at least that length. Comments must be less than 255 characters long.

  • Select Import items to import the values to the data list.

Deleting a batch of items from a data list

To remove multiple items from a data list, use the batch delete function. You must first create a list of the items to delete as a CSV file. See Importing a batch of items to a data list on how to format the CSV file. The unique identifiers under the _id header must correspond to the identifiers of the entries to delete from the data list.

To delete a batch of items from a data list:

  • In Settings > Data Lists, select the data list.

  • Select Batch tasks.

  • Select the Batch delete button that appears directly below.

  • Select Choose file and then select the CSV file to import. The number of items from the original list to be deleted is shown.

  • Check the box to confirm that you want to delete them. A message is displayed indicating that the deletion process may take a long time.

  • When you have confirmed that you want to delete the items, select Delete items. A green notification appears in the bottom left corner confirming that the items have been deleted.

Users

If you have the appropriate permission, you can create and delete users, manage their roles users, and assign them to teams.

Users displays a list of all Real-Time Decisioning users, as well as how many teams each user is a member of, and how many roles they have.

Creating a user

To create a new user:

  • In the Settings sidebar, select the Users button.

  • Enter a username in the Username box. The username must comply with the conditions described below the Username box (in the example shown above, the username can contain only letters, numbers, dots, underscores, and dashes).

  • (Optional) Enter the user’s display name in the Display Name box. If you enter a display name, this name that is displayed in the Real-Time Decisioning dashboard in place of the username. This is particularly useful if the username is a pseudo-random unique identifier.

  • (Local user account management only) Enter the new user’s password in the Password box, and again in the Confirm Password box. If the password you enter does not conform to your password policy, or what you enter in the Password and Confirm password boxes does not match, you cannot create your new user, and a warning is displayed above the relevant text box (consult your system administrators if you need more information on password policy).

  • (Local user account management only) Specify the roles to be assigned to the new user by checking the appropriate boxes in the User Roles list. If you do not specify any roles, the user cannot access any Real-Time Decisioning functionality. If they log into Real-Time Decisioning, they can only see the Account dashboard.

  • (Optional) Specify the teams the user is to be a member of by checking the checkbox next to the appropriate teams.

  • To confirm creation of the new user, select the Create button.

Editing a user

To edit an existing user’s details, including which roles they are assigned and which teams they are a member of:

  • Select the Edit button to the right of the name of that user in the Users list.

  • Edit any of the options described in the user creation process above.

Disabling a user

To disable a user account manually (to prevent that user from logging in):

  • Select Edit to the right of the username.

  • Select Disable on the right side of the Edit user bar.

  • Select Confirm to disable the account.

A user account that has been disabled manually is identified by a box like the one below.

Disabled user

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A user account that has been disabled due to multiple failed login attempts is identified like this:

Automatically disabled user

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A user account that has been disabled for this reason is automatically re-enabled after a configurable time period has passed (by default, 10 seconds).

Enabling a disabled account

To enable an account that has been disabled manually, or due to multiple login failures:

  • Select Edit to the right of the name of that user.

  • Select Enable on the right side of the Edit user bar.

  • Select Confirm.

Deleting a user

To delete a user:

  • In the list of users, on the right of the relevant user, select Delete.

  • Select Confirm Delete.

You can also delete a user role.

Teams

Use Settings to access a list of teams, create new teams, and add or remove users to or from teams.

To view a list of teams, select Settings in the sidebar.

To create a team:

  • Select Settings, then select Create Team.

  • Enter the name of the new team in the Name box.

  • Select the users to include in this team.

  • Select Create.

To change which users are members of an existing team:

  • Select Edit to the right of the team name in the team list.

  • Check or uncheck the checkboxes next to the names of the users you want to add or remove.

  • Select Update.

To delete a team, on the right of the relevant team, select Delete, then select Confirm Delete. You can also delete a team from the Edit Team work area.

Note
You cannot delete a team that contains any users.

System

Use System options to view an audit log. The audit log shows each user interaction with Real-Time Decisioning. Like other item lists, the list can be sorted or searched. The columns of the list provide a timestamp, username, HTTP method used, IP address, and the URL accessed. The report is a point-in-time snapshot.

Only users with the Audit Log permission can see the audit log.

To view the audit log:

  • Select System > Audit Log.

  • To view the submitted JSON-formatted content, select > to the left of the row in the list.

  • To expand all rows, select the + icon on the top-left corner of the table.

  • To copy the log data to the clipboard, use Copy to clipboard on the right side of each row.

  • To see more recent activity, select the Refresh button in the top-right corner.

User profile

Your user profile provides information and settings relating to your individual user profile. Your profile includes these areas:

  • Profile

  • Preferences

  • Change password

Profile

The Profile area at the top of the window shows your user name, display name, the user roles assigned to you, the teams you are a member of, and the permissions you have.

Preferences

Preferences allow you to make changes that affect your user account only.

To change the date display format:

  • From the Preferences dropdown, select US format (mm/dd/yyyy) or UK format (dd/mm/yyyy).

  • In Preferences, select Update.

The Display Name box allows you to add a name to display alongside your username on comments and user actions.

Change password

If this feature is enabled, you can change the password for your user account. If this option is not available, it may be because authentication credentials can only be managed by your system administrator. In that case, if you need to change your password, contact your system administrator. If you have forgotten your password, contact your system administrator or a user with the necessary privileges to change your password.

To change your password:

  • In the Current Password box, enter your current password.

  • Enter the new password in the New Password box, and in the Confirm Password box.

  • Under Preferences, select Update. If you enter your current password incorrectly, an error message is displayed.

  • To clear all the fields and start over, under Change Password section heading, select Update.

Terminology

Term Description

Aggregator

An aggregator is a kind of analytic that can combine and use the outputs of rules and models to generate tags.

Analytics

Analytics encompasses models and rules, as well as other useful tools such as aggregators that provide analysts with information on high-risk events.

Entity

Events happen to entities. An entity represents a unique individual and every event is associated with at least one entity. If a customer makes a transaction, that transaction event is associated with that customer, for example.

Entity ID

Each entity is identified by a unique entity ID.

Event

Real-Time Decisioning recognizes potential fraud and financial crime by monitoring events. An event is a customer transaction. Each event has one or more entities associated with it.

Model

A model is a predictive model that processes events and generates risk scores for certain event types. You cannot configure Real-Time Decisioning models.

Real-time/near-real-time events

Every event is processed by Real-Time Decisioning analytics. This processing happens in strict chronological order, so that no event is ever processed out of sequence. This is asynchronous processing, and happens to all events. However, some events require a real-time response (within a few hundredths of a second). These must be processed in a way that prioritizes low latency (that is, a fast response) rather than chronological order. This kind of event is called a real-time event.

State

Every entity has a state, which is a combination of all the information accumulated over that entity’s history. This is also called a behavioral profile. Every event processed has the potential to update an entity’s state, adding more information or updating information that can be used to build a behavioral profile of that customer.

Tag

Models, rules, and aggregators can add tags to give analysts more information or send information to be used downstream.

Rule

A rule defines some business logic. Rules take in information from events, entity states, and other data, and output a simple true or false response. Business rules are written in AMDL business logic definition language. For information about creating or editing rules, see Defining rules.

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